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Moncton

Moncton is a Canadian city located in Westmorland County, New Brunswick. Moncton is the most populous census metropolitan area (CMA) in New Brunswick with a population of 126,424. It is the second largest CMA in the Maritime Provinces, after Halifax, and the third largest in the Atlantic Provinces following Halifax and St. John's.

The Moncton CMA is one of the top ten fastest growing metropolitan areas in Canada and is also the fastest growing urban region east of Toronto. The CMA includes the neighbouring city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview, as well as the adjacent areas of Westmorland and Albert counties.

The city is situated in southeastern New Brunswick, within the Petitcodiac River Valley, and at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The community has gained the nickname "Hub City" because of its central location and also because Moncton has historically been the railway and land transportation hub for the Maritime Provinces.

Although the area was originally settled in 1733, Moncton is considered to have been officially founded in 1766 with the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Initially an agricultural settlement, Moncton was not incorporated until 1855. It was named after Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, the British officer who had captured the nearby Fort Beausejour a century earlier. A significant wooden shipbuilding industry had developed in the community by the mid 19th century, allowing for incorporation, but the shipbuilding economy collapsed in the 1860s. The city subsequently lost its charter in 1862 but regained it in 1875 when the city's economy rebounded, mainly due to a growing railway industry. In 1871, the Intercolonial Railway of Canada chose Moncton to be its headquarters, and it remained a railroad town for well over a century until the closure of the Canadian National Railway (CNR) locomotive shops in the late 1980s.

Although the economy of Moncton was traumatized twice?by the collapse of the shipbuilding industry in the 1860s and by the closure of the CNR locomotive shops in the 1980s?the city was able to rebound strongly on both occasions. The city adopted the motto Resurgo after its rebirth as a railway town. At present, the city's economy is stable and diversified, primarily based on its transportation, distribution, retailing and commercial heritage, but is supplemented by strength in the educational, health care, financial, information technology and insurance sectors. The strength of the economy has received national recognition and the local unemployment rate is consistently less than the national average.

The earliest known inhabitants of the Petitcodiac River Valley were the Mi'kmaq. Moncton is situated at the southern end of a traditional native American portage route connecting the Petitcodiac River with Shediac Bay on the nearby Northumberland Strait.
Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, who assisted with the "Great Upheaval" which resulted in the expulsion of the Acadian population from Le Coude. The city would later be named after him.

French Acadians first settled the head of the Bay of Fundy in the 1670s. The first reference to the "Petcoucoyer River" was on the De Meulles map of 1686. Settlement of the Petitcodiac and Memramcook river valleys began about 1700, gradually extending inland and reaching the site of present day Moncton in 1733. The first Acadian settlers in the Moncton area established a marshland farming community and chose to name their settlement Le Coude (The Elbow)

In 1755, the nearby Fort Beausejour was captured by English forces under the command of Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, and the Petitcodiac river valley subsequently fell under English control. Later that year, Governor Charles Lawrence issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia (including recently captured areas of Acadia such as le Coude). This action came to be known as the "Great Upheaval". The reaches of the upper Petitcodiac River valley then came under the control of the Philadelphia Land Company and in 1766 Pennsylvania Deutsch settlers arrived to re-establish the pre-existing farming community at Le Coude. The Settlers consisted of eight families; Heinrick Stief (Steeves), Jacob Treitz (Trites), Matthias Somers, Jacob Reicker (Ricker), Charles Jones, George Wortman, Micheal Lutz (Lutes) and George Copple. There is a plaque dedicated in their honor at the mouth of Hall's Creek. They renamed the settlement "The Bend".

The principal economy of the community remained agricultural until the early 1800s, when Royal Navy requirements helped to stimulate a lumbering and shipbuilding industry. As shipbuilding gained in importance, The Bend developed a service-based economy and gradually began to acquire all the amenities of a growing town. The prosperity engendered by the wooden shipbuilding industry allowed The Bend to incorporate as the town of Moncton in 1855. The town was named after Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, but a clerical error at the time the town was incorporated resulted in the mis-spelling of the community's name. Two years later, in 1857, the European and North American Railway opened its line from Moncton to nearby Shediac; this was followed by a line from Moncton to Saint John opening in 1859. At about the time of the arrival of the railway, the popularity of steam-powered ships forced an end to the era of wooden shipbuilding. The resulting industrial collapse caused Moncton to surrender its civic charter in 1862.
The Intercolonial Railway depot in Moncton was central to the city's economic recovery in the late 19th century.

Moncton's economic depression did not last long and a second era of prosperity came to the area in 1871 when Moncton was selected to be the headquarters of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada (ICR). The arrival of the ICR in Moncton was a seminal event for the community. For the next 120 years, the history of the city would be firmly linked with that of the railway. In 1875, Moncton was able to reincorporate as a town and adopted the motto "Resurgo" (Latin for I rise again). One year later, the ICR line to Quebec was opened. The railway boom that emanated from this and the associated employment growth allowed Moncton to achieve city status on April 23, 1890.

Moncton grew rapidly during the early 20th century, particularly after provincial lobbying helped the city become the eastern terminus of the massive National Transcontinental Railway project in 1912. In 1918, the ICR and NTR were merged by the federal government into the newly formed Canadian National Railways (CNR) system. The ICR shops would become CNR's major locomotive repair facility for the Maritimes and Moncton became the headquarters for CNR's Maritime division. The T. Eaton Company's catalogue warehouse moved to the city in the early 1920s, employing over five hundred people. During the Second World War the Canadian Army built a large military supply base in the city. Railway employment in Moncton peaked at nearly six thousand workers in the 1950s before starting a long slow decline.

Moncton was placed on the Trans-Canada Highway network in the early 1960s after Route 2 was built along the northern perimeter of the city. Subsequent development saw Route 15 built between the city and Shediac. At the same time, the Petitcodiac River Causeway was constructed. The Universite de Moncton was founded in 1963. This institution became an important resource in the development of Acadian culture in the area.
The CNR repair shops were the largest employer in Moncton until their closure in the late 1980s.

The late 1970s and the 1980s again saw a period of economic hardship hit the city as several major employers closed or restructured. The Eatons catalogue division, CNR's locomotive shops facility and CFB Moncton were all closed during this time throwing thousands of citizens out of work. The citizenry was so despondent by the late 1980s that the city's promotional slogan became simply Moncton - We're OK.

Diversification in the early 1990s saw the rise of information technology, led by call centres which made use of the city's bilingual workforce. By the late 1990s, retail, manufacturing and service expansion began to occur in all sectors and within a decade of the closure of the CNR locomotive shops Moncton had more than made up for its employment losses. This dramatic turnaround in the fortunes of the city has been termed the "Moncton Miracle".

The growth of the community has continued unabated since the 1990s and has been accelerating. The confidence of the community has been bolstered by its ability to host major events such as the Francophonie Summit in 1999, a Rolling Stones concert in 2005 and the Memorial Cup in 2006. Recent positive developments include the Atlantic Baptist University achieving full university status and relocating to a new campus in 1996, the Greater Moncton Airport opening a new terminal building and becoming a designated international airport in 2002, and the opening of the new Gunningsville Bridge to Riverview in 2005. In 2002, Moncton became Canada's first officially bilingual city. In the 2006 census, Moncton was officially designated a Census Metropolitan Area and became the largest metropolitan area in the province of New Brunswick.

Geography

Moncton lies in southeastern New Brunswick, at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The city is located along the north bank of the Petitcodiac River at a point where the river bends acutely from a west?east to north?south flow.

Petitcodiac in the Mi'kmaq language has been translated as meaning "bends like a bow". The early Acadian settlers in the region named their community Le Coude which means "the elbow". Subsequent English immigrants changed the name of the settlement to The Bend of the Petitcodiac (or simply The Bend).

The Petitcodiac river valley at Moncton is broad and relatively flat, bounded by a long ridge to the north (Lutes Mountain) and by the rugged Caledonia Highlands to the south. Moncton lies at the original head of navigation on the river, however a causeway to Riverview (constructed in 1968) resulted in extensive sedimentation of the river channel downstream and rendered the Moncton area of the waterway unnavigable.

Tidal bore

The Petitcodiac River exhibits one of North America's few tidal bores: a regularly occurring wave that travels up the river on the leading edge of the incoming tide. The bore is as a result of the extreme tides of the Bay of Fundy. Originally, the bore was very impressive, sometimes between one and two metres (3.2?6.4 ft) in height and extending across the kilometre (.62 mi) width of the Petitcodiac River in the Moncton area. This wave would occur twice a day at the incoming of the high tide, travelling at an average speed of 13 km/h (8 mph) and producing an audible roar. When the Petitcodiac causeway was built in the 1960s the river channel quickly silted in and reduced the bore so that it now rarely exceeds 15?20 cm in height.

Despite being less than 50 km (31 mi) from the Bay of Fundy and less than 30 km (19 mi) from the Northumberland Strait, the climate can seem more continental than maritime during the summer and winter seasons, though maritime influences tend to temper the transitional seasons of spring and autumn.

Winter days are cold but generally sunny with solar radiation generating some warmth. Daytime high temperatures usually range just below the freezing point. Major snowfalls can result from nor'easter ocean storms moving up the east coast of North America. Major snowfalls typically average 20?30 cm (8?12 in) and are frequently mixed with rain or freezing rain. Spring is frequently delayed because the sea ice that forms in the nearby Gulf of St. Lawrence during the previous winter requires time to melt, and this cools the prevailing onshore winds. The ice burden in the gulf has diminished considerably over the course of the last decade (which may be a consequence of global warming), and the springtime cooling effect has weakened as a result. Daytime temperatures above freezing are typical by early March. Trees are usually in full leaf by mid-May. Summers are hot and humid due to seasonal prevailing westerly winds strengthening the continental tendencies of the local climate. Daytime highs sometimes reach more than 30 ?C (86 ?F). Rainfall is generally modest, especially in late July and August, and periods of drought are not uncommon. Autumn daytime temperatures remain mild until early November. First snowfalls usually do not occur until late November and consistent snow cover on the ground does not happen until early January. The Fundy coast of New Brunswick occasionally experiences the effects of post-tropical storms. The stormiest weather of the year, with the greatest precipitation and the strongest winds, usually occurs during the fall/winter transition (mid-December to mid-January).

Nearby natural features

There are many natural attractions near Moncton. Two major national parks, Fundy National Park and Kouchibouguac National Park, are within a one-hour drive of the city. The warmest salt water beaches north of Virginia can be found on the Northumberland Strait, only 15 minutes away at Parlee Beach in the nearby town of Shediac. The Hopewell Rocks, are a half hour's drive down the Petitcodiac river valley. Cape Enrage, located near Alma, includes a historic lighthouse, fossil cliffs, scenic vistas, and adventure tourism. The Sackville Waterfowl Park includes nature trails and a boardwalk over a freshwater marsh as well as waterfowl viewing platforms. Other nearby attractions include The Cape Jourimain National Wildlife Preserve and La Dune de Bouctouche Eco-Centre, an ecotourism site and beach.

Cityscape

A panoramic view of Moncton's skyline looking northeast from Riverview.

Skyline

The Aliant Tower is the tallest structure in the Moncton area.

Moncton generally remains a "low rise" city. The city's skyline however encompasses many buildings and structures with varying architectural styles from many periods. The most dominant structure in the city is the Aliant Tower, a 127-metre (417 ft) microwave communications tower built in 1971. When it was constructed, it was the tallest tower of its kind in North America. Assumption Place is a 20-story office building and is the headquarters of Assumption Mutual Life Insurance. This building is 80.8 metres (265 ft) in height and is tied with Brunswick Square, (Saint John) as the tallest building in the province. The Blue Cross Centre is a large nine-story building in downtown Moncton. Although only nine stories tall, the building is architecturally distinctive, encompasses a full city block and is the largest office building in the city in terms of square footage. It is the headquarters of Medavie Blue Cross Insurance, and home to the Moncton Public Library. There are about a half dozen other buildings in Moncton that range between eight and twelve stories in height, including the Delta Beausejour and Brunswick Crowne Plaza Hotels and the Terminal Plaza office complex.

Urban parks

The most popular park in the area is Centennial Park, which contains an artificial beach, lighted cross country skiing and hiking trails, the city's largest playground, lawn bowling and tennis facilities, a boating pond, a treetop adventure course and Rocky Stone Field, the city's only football field with artificial turf. The city's other main parks are Mapleton Park in the city's north end, Irishtown Nature Park (one of the largest urban nature parks in Canada) and St. Anselme Park (located in Dieppe). The numerous neighbourhood parks throughout the metro Moncton area include Bore View Park (which overlooks the Petitcodiac River) and the downtown Victoria Park, which features a bandshell, flower gardens, fountain, and the city's cenotaph. There is an extensive system of hiking and biking trails in the metro area. The riverfront trail is part of the Trans Canada Trail system, and various monuments and pavilions can be found along its length.

Moncton's linguistic majority is English, though the city has an active French-speaking Acadian minority population (30%). Almost all Monctonians speak English (64.3%) or French (33.4%) as a first language; 1% speak both languages as a first language, and 1.2% speak another language. About 40% of the metropolitan population is bilingual; the only other Canadian cities that approach this level of linguistic duality are Ottawa, Sudbury and Montreal. Moncton became the first officially bilingual city in the country in 2002. The adjacent city of Dieppe is about 80% Francophone and has benefited from an ongoing rural depopulation of the Acadian Peninsula and areas in northern and eastern New Brunswick. The town of Riverview meanwhile is heavily (95%) Anglophone.

The metropolitan area has grown by 6.5% since 2001. This rate of growth is within the top ten among major cities in Canada and is the fastest growth rate of any metro area east of Toronto. The census metropolitan area had a population of 126,424 as of the 2006 national census, which makes it the largest metropolitan area in the province of New Brunswick and the second largest in the Maritime Provinces after Halifax. The CMA includes the city of Dieppe (population 18,565), town of Riverview (17,832), Moncton Parish (8,747), Memramcook (4,638), Coverdale (4,144), and Salisbury (2,036).

Historically, the population of the city has been racially homogenous with almost all residents originating from northwestern Europe. Although diversity has increased in the last decade, the visible minority population remains far below the national average. Migration is mostly from other areas of New Brunswick (especially the north) as well as Nova Scotia (13%) and Ontario (9%). 62% of new arrivals to the city are Anglophone and 38% are Francophone.

Economy

Assumption Place in downtown Moncton is headquarters of Assumption Life.

The underpinnings of the local economy are based on Moncton's heritage as a commercial, distribution, transportation and retailing centre. This is due to Moncton's central location in the Maritimes: it has the largest catchment area in Atlantic Canada with 1.4 million people living within a three-hour drive of the city. The insurance, information technology, educational and health care sectors also are major factors in the local economy with the city's two hospitals alone employing over five thousand people.

Moncton has garnered national attention because of the strength of its economy. The local unemployment rate averages around 6%, which is below the national average. In 2004 Canadian Business Magazine named it the "The best city for business in Canada", and in 2007 FDi magazine named it the fifth most business friendly small-sized city in North America.

A number of regionally prominent corporations have their head offices in Moncton including Atlantic Lottery Corporation, Assumption Life Insurance, Medavie Blue Cross Insurance, Armour Transportation Systems, Pizza Delight Corporation, Major Drilling Group International, and Co-op Atlantic.

There are 37 call centres in the city which employ over 5000 people. Some of the larger centres include Asurion, BBM Canada, Exxon Mobil, Royal Bank of Canada, UPS, Fairmont Hotels, Rogers Communications and Sitel. A growing high tech sector includes companies such as Gtech, Nanoptix, International Game Technology, OAO Technology Solutions, TrustMe and BelTek Systems Design.
The Blue Cross Centre is headquarters for Medavie Blue Cross.

Several arms of the Irving corporate empire have their head offices and major operations in greater Moncton. These include Midland Transport, Majesta/Royale Tissues, Irving Personal Care, Master Packaging and Cavendish Farms. The Irving group of companies employs about 5000 people in the Moncton region.

There are three large industrial parks in the metropolitan area. The Irving operations are concentrated in the Dieppe Industrial Park. Maple Leaf Foods is a major employer in the city and is in the Moncton Industrial Park. Molson/Coors opened a brewery in the Caledonia Industrial Park in 2007, their first new brewery in over fifty years. All three industrial parks also have large concentrations of warehousing and regional trucking facilities.

A new four-lane Gunningsville Bridge was opened in 2005, connecting downtown Riverview directly with downtown Moncton. On the Moncton side, the bridge connects with an extension of Vaughan Harvey Boulevard as well as to Assumption Boulevard and will serve as a catalyst for economic growth in the downtown area. This has become already evident as an expansion to the Blue Cross Centre was completed in 2006 and a new Marriott Residence Inn opened in 2008. A new regional law courts will be built on Assumption Blvd by 2010 and momentum is building for a new downtown 12-15,000 seat arena. On the Riverview side, the Gunningsville Bridge now connects to a new ring road around the town and is expected to serve as a catalyst for development in east Riverview.
The Central Business District of Moncton is home to many government and financial organizations

The retail sector in Moncton has become one of the most important pillars of the local economy. Major retail projects such as Champlain Place in Dieppe and the Wheeler Park Power Centre on Trinity Drive have become major destinations for locals and for tourists alike. Champlain Place is currently undergoing a $14 million renovation and a new power center is under construction on Mapleton road, adjacent to Wheeler Park.

Tourism is an important industry in Moncton and historically owes its origins to the presence of two natural attractions, the tidal bore of the Petitcodiac River (see above) and the optical illusion of Magnetic Hill. The tidal bore was the first phenomenon to become an attraction but the construction of the Petitcodiac causeway in the 1960s effectively exterminated the attraction. Today, Magnetic Hill, on the city's northwest outskirts, is the city's most famous attraction. The Magnetic Hill area includes (in addition to the phenomenon itself), a major water park, zoo, and an outdoor concert facility. A $90 million casino/hotel/entertainment complex will open at Magnetic Hill by 2010.

Arts and culture

Moncton's Capitol Theatre, an 800-seat restored 1920s-era vaudeville house on Main Street, is the main centre for cultural entertainment for the city. The theatre hosts a performing arts series and is a venue for theatrical performances, the New Brunswick Symphony Orchestra and the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada. The adjacent Empress Theatre provides space for smaller performances and recitals.

The Moncton-based Atlantic Ballet Theatre tours mainly in Atlantic Canada but also tours nationally and internationally on occasion. Theatre l??scaouette is a Francophone live theatre company which has its own auditorium and performance space on Botsford Street. The Anglophone Live Bait Theatre is based in the nearby university town of Sackville. The Chocolate River Conservatory of Music is located in Dieppe. In addition, there are several private dance and music academies in the metropolitan area, including the Capitol Theatre's own performing arts school. The Canadian Poetry Association national headquarters is located in Moncton.

The Aberdeen Cultural Centre is a major Acadian cultural cooperative containing multiple studios and galleries. Among other tenants, the Centre houses the Galerie Sans Nom, the principal private art gallery in the city.

The city's two main museums are the Moncton Museum on Mountain Road and the Musee Acadien at Universite de Moncton. The city has several recognized historical sites. The Free Meeting House was built in 1821 and is a New England-style meeting house located adjacent to the Moncton Museum. The Thomas Williams House, a former home of a city industrialist built in 1883, is now maintained in period style and serves as a genealogical research centre and is also home to several multicultural organizations. The Treitz Haus is located on the riverfront adjacent to Bore View Park and has been dated to the early 1770s both by architectural style and by dendrochronology. It is the only surviving building from the Pennsylvania Dutch era and now serves as the city's principle tourist information centre.

Moncton is home to the Frye Festival, an annual bilingual literary celebration held in honour of world renowned literary critic and favorite son Northrop Frye. This event attracts noted writers and poets from around the world and takes place in the month of April.

The Atlantic Nationals Automotive Extravaganza, held each July, is the largest annual gathering of classic cars in Canada. Other notable events include The Atlantic Seafood Festival in August, and the The HubCap Comedy Festival in the spring.

Sports

A construction crane in downtown Moncton shows support for the Moncton Wildcats.

The Moncton Coliseum is a 6,554-seat arena (7,200 with standing room) which serves as a venue for major concerts and trade shows and is the home of the Moncton Wildcats of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The CN Sportplex is a major recreational facility which has been built on the former CN Shops property. It includes ten ballfields, six soccer fields and an indoor rink complex with four ice surfaces (the Tim Hortons 4 Ice Centre). The Dundee Sports Dome, an indoor air supported multi-use building is also located at the Sportsplex. This building is large enough to allow for year-round football, soccer and golf activities. A newly constructed YMCA near the CN Sportsplex has extensive cardio and weight training facilities as well as three indoor pools. The CEPS at Universite de Moncton contains an indoor track and a 37.5 metre (123 ft) swimming pool with diving towers. The only velodrome in Atlantic Canada is in Dieppe. The metro area has a total of 12 indoor hockey rinks and three curling clubs. Other public sporting and recreational facilities are scattered throughout the metropolitan area.

Greater Moncton has many golfing facilities. There are nine 18-hole golf courses in the census metropolitan area, two of which are residential courses and two more of which are undergoing residential conversion with courseside housing developments under construction. Both the Royal Oaks and Fox Creek golf clubs can be considered championship courses, with Royal Oaks being the first Rees Jones designed golf course in Canada. Other notable courses include the Moncton Golf & Country Club, Memramcook Valley Golf Club and Magnetic Hill Golf Club.

Major events

Moncton has hosted many large sporting events. The 2006 Memorial Cup was held in Moncton with the hometown Moncton Wildcats losing in the championship final to rival Quebec Remparts. Moncton hosted the Canadian Interuniversity Sports (CIS) Men's University Hockey Championship in 2007 and 2008. In 2009 the World Men's Curling Championship will be held in Moncton, this will be the second time the event has taken place in the city. Moncton has also been awarded the 2010 IAAF World Junior Championships in Athletics. This will be the largest sporting event ever held in Atlantic Canada. Construction has begun on a 20,000 seat outdoor track stadium to host this event. This stadium will be built on the Universite de Moncton campus. Additional world class practice track facilities will be built on the campus of Mount Allison University and also at Moncton High School. Major sporting events hosted by Moncton include:

* 1968 Canadian Junior Baseball Championships
* 1974 Canadian Figure Skating Championships
* 1975 Intercontinental Cup (baseball)
* 1977 Skate Canada International
* 1978 CIS University Cup (hockey)
* 1980 World Mens Curling Championships
* 1982 CIS University Cup
* 1983 CIS University Cup
* 1985 Canadian Figure Skating Championships
* 1985 Labatt Brier (curling)
* 1992 Canadian Figure Skating Championships
* 1997 World Junior Baseball Championships
* 2000 Canadian Junior Curling Championships
* 2004 Canadian Senior Baseball Championships
* 2006 Memorial Cup (hockey)
* 2007 CIS University Cup
* 2008 CIS University Cup
* 2009 World Men's Curling Championship
* 2009 Fred Page Cup (hockey)
* 2010 IAAF World Junior Championships in Athletics

Entertainment and shopping

Magic Mountain Water Park is a popular tourist attraction during the summer months.

Magnetic Hill is on the northwestern outskirts of Moncton and is now the city's most famous attraction. It is a gravity hill optical illusion, where the local topography gives the impression that you are going uphill when in fact you are going downhill.

The "Magnetic Hill Illusion" is a popular tourism draw and both the city and province have built major tourism developments on the surrounding properties to capitalize on this. The complex includes The Magnetic Hill Zoo, a nationally accredited and award winning zoo with over 400 animals displayed in themed exhibit areas. It is the largest zoo in Atlantic Canada and has a well developed educational program. Also on site is Magic Mountain Water Park, the largest water park in Atlantic Canada, with a half dozen large water slides, a lazy river, wave pool, children's splash pool and a 36-hole mini-golf course. The Magnetic Hill Concert Site, a large outdoor concert facility which holds one or two large concerts every year is located nearby. The Rolling Stones performed there in 2005 in front of 85,000 fans. Tim McGraw and Faith Hill played there in 2007 in front of 50,000. Most recently, The Eagles played there in the summer of 2008 in front of 55,000 fans.

At present, the major destinations for shopping enthusiasts are the Wheeler Park Power Centre and Champlain Place, which, at 816,000 square feet (75,800 m2), is the largest shopping mall in Atlantic Canada and has over 160 stores and services. Moncton is home to New Brunswick's only Bay department store.

Crystal Palace, an indoor amusement park with a dozen rides including a roller coaster and a wave swinger was built adjacent to Champlain Place in 1990 to take advantage of the tourist traffic generated by the mall. It is a popular family destination and has Top Attraction status with tourism New Brunswick. This complex also includes a hotel, restaurant, Chapters bookstore and a multiplex cinema complex.

Government

The city's current City Hall was constructed in 1996 as part of an urban renewal project

The municipal government consists of a mayor and ten city councillors elected to four-year terms of office. The council is non-partisan with the mayor serving as the chairman, casting a ballot only in cases of a tie vote. There are four wards electing two councillors each with an additional two councillors selected at large by the general electorate. Day to day operation of the city is under the control of a City Manager.

The greater Moncton area contains seven of New Brunswick's 55 provincial electoral districts: Moncton North, Moncton Crescent, Moncton East, Moncton West, Riverview, Memramcook-Lakeville-Dieppe, and Dieppe Centre-Lewisville. Of the seven members of the Legislative Assembly that currently represent greater Moncton, five belong to the Liberal party and two belong to the Progressive Conservative party.

Moncton is in the federal riding of Moncton?Riverview?Dieppe. Portions of Dieppe are in the federal riding of Beausejour, and portions of Riverview are in the riding of Fundy Royal. Of the three members of Parliament that currently represent greater Moncton, two belong to the Liberal party and one belongs to the Conservative party.

Education

Separate Anglophone and Francophone school boards administer greater Moncton's 34 public primary and secondary schools. District 1 is Francophone and administers nine schools in the Moncton area. District 2 is Anglophone and administers 25 schools in Greater Moncton. There are four Anglophone high schools in the metro Moncton area; Moncton High School, Harrison Trimble High School, Bernice MacNaughton High School and Riverview High School. The area's Francophone high schools are Ecole Mathieu-Martin and Ecole L'Odyssee.
The Universite de Moncton is the only French-language university in New Brunswick.

Four universities have campuses in the greater Moncton region. The Universite de Moncton is the largest French-language university in Canada outside of Quebec. The school enrolls over 4000 students and offers a variety of undergraduate and post-graduate degree programs, including a School of Law. The Atlantic Baptist University is a private liberal arts university affiliated with the Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches that enrolls about 700 students. It offers degrees in arts, science, education, business, and religious studies. The University of New Brunswick (Moncton) is a small satellite health sciences campus located at the Moncton Hospital that offers degrees in nursing and medical X-ray technology to over 300 students. Mount Allison University, currently ranked by MacLean's magazine as Canada's top undergraduate university, is located about a half hour from downtown Moncton in nearby Sackville. It enrolls over 2200 students and offers degrees in arts, commerce, music, fine arts, and science (including masters degrees in biology and chemistry). Mount Allison provides first year and extension university courses in Moncton and has developed a formal affiliation with the Moncton Flight College to allow for a bachelors degree in aviation.

Moncton is also home to two community colleges. The English-language New Brunswick Community College - Moncton is the largest campus in the NBCC system with an enrollment of over 1200. It provides training in over 30 different trades and technology disciplines. A major $20 million expansion/refurbishment of the campus has just been announced which will allow enrollment to increase by an additional 400. The French-language New Brunswick Community College - Dieppe also provides training in the trades and technology sectors.

Moncton's four private vocational schools offer practical training in a variety of fields. The Atlantic Business College offers a variety of business, paramedical and paralegal programs. Moncton Flight College is one of Canada's oldest, largest, and most prestigious flight schools. McKenzie College is a visual arts institution specializing in graphic design, digital media and animation. Oulton College, New Brunswick's oldest private college, provides training in a variety of business, paramedical, dental sciences, pharmacy, veterinary, youth care and paralegal programs.

Media

The New Brunswick headquarters for Rogers Cable (Canada's largest cable TV provider)[106] is located in downtown Moncton.

Rogers Cable has its provincial headquarters and main production facilities in Moncton and broadcasts on two community channels, Cable 9 in French and Cable 10 in English. The French-language arm of the CBC, (Radio-Canada (SRC)) maintains its Atlantic Canadian headquarters in Moncton. There are three other broadcast television stations in Moncton and these represent all of the major national networks.

There are 15 broadcast radio stations in the city covering a variety of genres and interests, all on the FM dial. Ten of these stations are English and five are French.

The city's main daily newspaper is the Anglophone Times & Transcript, which has the highest circulation of any daily newspaper in New Brunswick.[107] L'Acadie Nouvelle serves as the city's French newspaper, though it is published in Caraquet in northern New Brunswick. Other publications include [Here], a free weekly publication offering a more youthful perspective on local news, and Boom Magazine, a free weekly alternative magazine.[108]

Moncton is served by the Greater Moncton International Airport (YQM). A new airport terminal with an international arrivals area opened in 2002. The GMIA handles nearly 575,000 passengers per year, making it the second busiest airport in the Maritime provinces in terms of passenger volume.[109] In terms of actual aircraft movements, the GMIA is the 14th busiest airport in Canada.
The Via Rail station in downtown Moncton offers transportation across eight Canadian provinces.

Air Canada, Air Canada Jazz, Westjet and Continental Express provide the airport's regularly scheduled flights with destinations including Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton and New York City. The airport also provides service to seven seasonal destinations, with operators including Air Saint-Pierre, Canjet, Skyservice and Sunwing Airlines.[110]

The GMIA is a major air cargo centre with both FedEx and Purolator having their Atlantic Canadian bases at the facility. In addition, the GMIA is the home of the Moncton Flight College; the largest flight college in Canada.[111] The GMIA also is the base for the regional RCMP air service, the New Brunswick Air Ambulance Service and the regional Transport Canada hangar and depot.

There is a second smaller aerodrome located in Moncton as well. McEwen Airfield (CCG4) is a private airstrip used for general aviation and is located off of Elmwood Drive. Skydive Moncton operates the province's only nationally certified sports parachute club out of this facility.[112]

The Moncton Area Control Center is one of only seven regional high level air traffic control centers in Canada.[113] This center monitors over 430,000 flights a year, 80% of which are either entering or leaving North American airspace.[113]

Railways

Moncton is served by two freight railway companies, Canadian National Railway and the New Brunswick East Coast Railway. The city is also served by VIA Rail Canada, which provides rail passenger service to Halifax and Montreal six days per week with the Ocean.[114]

Monctons urban transit authority (Codiac Transit) uses primarily modern busses manufactured by Nova Bus.

Moncton is on Route 2 of the Trans-Canada Highway, it leads to Nova Scotia in the east and to Fredericton and Quebec in the west. Route 15 intersects Route 2 at the eastern outskirts of Moncton, heads northeast and bypasses Shediac, connecting to Route 16, the route to Prince Edward Island. Route 1 intersects Route 2 approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) west of the city which leads to Saint John and the U.S. border.[115] Wheeler Boulevard (Route 15) serves as an internal ring road, extending from the Petitcodiac River Causeway to Dieppe before exiting the city and heading for Shediac. Inside the city it is a divided highway bounded at either end by traffic circles.[115]

Urban transit

The Metro Moncton Area is served by Codiac Transit, which is operated by the City of Moncton. It operates 28 buses on 23 routes throughout Moncton, Dieppe and Riverview.[116] The city is currently working to increase its annual ridership from 1.7 million to 2.8 million. To assist with this, the bus fleet will increase to 54 vehicles within the next two years.[117] Service frequency will increase with old routes reconfigured and new express routes added, including regular service to the international airport.[117]

Moncton is also the headquarters of the Acadian Lines interprovincial bus service. All other major centres in New Brunswick, as well as Charlottetown, Halifax and Truro are served out of Moncton.[119]

Military

The Moncton Garrison

Aside from locally formed militia units, the military did not have a significant presence in the Moncton area until the beginning of the Second World War. In 1940, a large military supply base (later known as CFB Moncton) was constructed on a railway spur line north of downtown next to the CNR shops. This base served as the main supply depot for the large wartime military establishment in the Maritimes.[120] In addition, two Commonwealth Air Training Plan bases were also built in the Moncton area during the war.[120]A naval listening station was also constructed in Coverdale (Riverview) in 1941 to help in coordinating radar activities in the North Atlantic.[120] Military flight training in the Moncton area terminated at the end of World War II and the naval listening station closed in 1971. CFB Moncton remained open to supply the maritime military establishment until just after the end of the Cold War.[120]

With the closure of CFB Moncton in the early 1990s, the military presence in Moncton has been significantly reduced. The northern portion of the former base property has been turned over to the Canada Lands Corporation and is slowly being redeveloped.[122] The southern part of the former base remains an active DND property and is now termed the Moncton Garrison. It is affiliated with CFB Gagetown.[121] Resident components of the garrison include the 1 Construction Engineering Unit and 4 Air Defence Regiment (regular forces). The garrison also houses the 37 Canadian Brigade Group Headquarters (reserves) and one of the 37 Brigades constituent units; the 8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's), which is an armoured reconnaissance regiment.[121] A small logistical support unit providing assistance to CFB Gagetown is also located at the base.[121]

Health facilities

There are two major regional referral and teaching hospitals in Moncton:

The Moncton Hospital.

The Moncton Hospital has approximately 400 active treatment beds and is affiliated with Dalhousie University Medical School. It is home to the Northumberland family medicine residency training program and also hosts UNB degree programs in nursing and medical x-ray technology. Tertiary medical services include neurosciences (including neurosurgery and neurointerventional radiology), vascular surgery, orthopedics, trauma, burn unit, medical oncology, and neonatal intensive care. A $48 million expansion to the hospital scheduled for completion in 2009 will contain a new laboratory, ambulatory care centre and trauma centre.[124]The Dr. Georges-L. Dumont Hospital

The Dr. Georges-L. Dumont Regional Hospital has 423 beds and operates a satellite medical training program affiliated with Universite de Sherbrooke Medical School. There are degree programs in nursing, medical x-ray technology, medical laboratory technology and inhalotherapy which are administered by U de M. Tertiary medical services include oncology (including radiation oncology) and nephrology. A cardiac cath lab and a PET/CT scanner have been announced for the hospital.[126] The hospital has an affiliation with the Moncton based Atlantic Cancer Research Institute.[127]

Notable Monctonians

Moncton has been the home of a number of notable people, including National Hockey League Hall of Famer and NHL scoring champion Gordie Drillon, World and Olympic champion curler Russ Howard,[129] The distinguished literary critic and theorist Northrop Frye,[130] the former Governor-General of Canada Romeo LeBlanc,[131] and former Supreme Court Justice Ivan Cleveland Rand, developer of the Rand Formula and Canada's representative on the UNSCOP commission.[132] Robb Wells, the actor who plays Ricky on the Showcase hit comedy Trailer Park Boys hails from Moncton,[133][134] along with Julie Doiron,[135][136] an indie rock musician and Holly Dignard the actress who plays Nicole Miller on the CTV series "Whistler".[137] Antonine Maillet a francophone author, recipient of the Order of Canada and the "Prix Goncourt", the highest honour in francophone literature, is also from Moncton.
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